We want to financially support activists with different opinions who fight against injustice in the world. We also need your support for this! Feel free to donate 1 euro, 2 euros or another amount of your choice. The activists really need the support to continue their activities.

Wij willen activisten met verschillende opinies die vechten tegen onrecht in de wereld financieel steunen. Hiervoor hebben wij ook uw steun nodig! Doneer vrijblijvend 1 euro, 2 euro of een ander bedrag naar keuze. Deze activisten hebben de steun hard nodig om hun activiteiten te blijven uitoefenen.

Nous voulons soutenir financièrement des militants aux opinions différentes qui luttent contre l'injustice dans le monde. Nous avons également besoin de votre soutien pour cela! N'hésitez pas à faire un don de 1 euro, 2 euros ou un autre montant de votre choix. Les militants ont vraiment besoin de soutien pour poursuivre leurs activités.

Wir wollen Aktivisten mit unterschiedlichen Meinungen, die gegen die Ungerechtigkeit in der Welt kämpfen, finanziell unterstützen. Dafür brauchen wir auch Ihre Unterstützung! Sie können gerne 1 Euro, 2 Euro oder einen anderen Betrag Ihrer Wahl spenden. Die Aktivisten brauchen wirklich die Unterstützung, um ihre Aktivitäten fortzusetzen.

Queremos apoyar económicamente a activistas con opiniones diferentes que luchan contra la injusticia en el mundo. ¡También necesitamos su apoyo para esto! No dude en donar 1 euro, 2 euros u otra cantidad de su elección. Los activistas realmente necesitan el apoyo para continuar con sus actividades.

Queremos apoiar financeiramente ativistas com diferentes opiniões que lutam contra as injustiças no mundo. Também precisamos do seu apoio para isso! Fique à vontade para doar 1 euro, 2 euros ou outra quantia à sua escolha. Os ativistas realmente precisam de apoio para continuar suas atividades.

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vrijdag 24 september 2021

#WORLD #WORLDWIDE #FRANCE #HAITI #ANARCHISM #News #Journal #Update - (en) #France, #UCL #AL #318 - File Haitian Revolution: The Louverturian Constitution of 1801, revolutionary and conservative (ca, de, it, fr, pt)[machine translation]

 To preserve the gains of the revolution, while restoring social order. Like

Bonaparte in France, Toussaint wants to "end" the revolution. ---- In the spring
of 1801, Toussaint Louverture, in a hurry to consolidate his work, had a
Constitution for Saint-Domingue drawn up. It is the gesture of a builder who now
sees himself as a "father of the nation», But also a challenge to the metropolis,
faced with a fait accompli. The Constituent Assembly, composed of 10 members
approved by Toussaint, is dominated by white and mulatto planters. She gave birth
to a text which, validated by Toussaint, was to be promulgated in Cape Town, then
in all the parishes of the country, with great publicity and solemn ceremonies.
Daughter of ten years of revolutionary convulsions, but tailor-made for the
strong man of the moment, the Constitution of 18 Messidor Year IX (July 7, 1801)
is at once autonomist, revolutionary and anti-racist, bourgeois and Caesarean,
militarist and clerical .

Constitution of 18 Messidor Year IX (PDF to download)
Autonomist. It is stipulated there that Saint-Domingue "is part of the French
Empire" but is endowed with "particular laws" (art. 1).

Revolutionary. "There can be no slaves in this land; servitude is there forever
abolished. All men are born, live and die free and French" (article 3).

Antiracist. Any citizen "whatever his color, is eligible for all jobs" (art. 4).
In reality, however, social mobility is prohibited for black farmers who are
attached to the land.

Bourgeoise. The Constitution guarantees private property (art. 75) to a
possessing class that has become multicolored, and subjects the cultivators to it
by stipulating that they form a "family" whose "owner of the land" is "the
father" (art. 15). The "cultivation regulations" of October 1800 and February
1801 are engraved in Constitution (art. 16).

Cesarean section. Like the Consulate regime, established in France by Bonaparte,
the Louverturian regime is akin to Caesarism: the Constitution stipulates that
Toussaint will remain governor "for the rest of his glorious life" (art. 28) and
that he will have power. exclusive choice of his successor (art. 30).

After that, the governor's mandate will be for a period of five years. The
governor appoints "to all civil and military employment" (art. 34), including in
each municipality (art. 49), has the power of "censorship" over any printed
matter (art. 39), and he alone can propose laws (art. 19) to the Central
Assembly, which has 10 deputies.

Militarist. After Toussaint's successor, the governor will be appointed by the
"Central Assembly" and by "the meeting of active army generals and departmental
commanders in chief" (art. 32).

Clerical. Breaking with the French Revolution, the Constitution of Saint-Domingue
proclaims Catholicism the official religion (art. 6), prohibits divorce (art. 10)
and subordinates the ecclesiastical apparatus to the authority of the governor
(art. 8). Voodoo, considered uncontrollable, has been prohibited since January 1800.

Guillaume Davranche (UCL Montreuil)

https://www.unioncommunistelibertaire.org/?Dossier-Revolution-haitienne-La-Constitution-louverturienne-de-1801
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